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Types of Appeals / Ethical / Emotional / Logical

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So how do you get it across to me that I need to buy your product or hire your service? You make an appeal. This is what most advertising and marketing is based upon. Below are the three types of appeals that are normally used.

THREE TYPES OF APPEALS

Ethical Appeal
-an appeal made to someone’s or something’s image. This is the type of appeal used frequently in political advertisements. For example, politicians have been known to criticize their opponents to attempt to elevate themselves. Also, ethical appeals are effective when a customer writes a company and says, “I’ve always thought of your firm as being professional and customer oriented, but….”

Emotional Appeal
-an appeal made to an emotion. This is used in many types of advertising and marketing. Companies try to make you fearful of not having insurance or make you want to look good driving that convertible.

Logical Appeal
-an appeal made to a person’s ability to reason. This is the most effective type of appeal—but the least used. Why? Because it requires significant time to develop and can’t easily be put into a 30-second commercial. The process would be to give me logical steps, “If this is so, then you must conclude this, etc.”

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Search Engine Optimization
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72 Examples of Best Print Advertisements
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Persuasive Writing Lesson / Writing Techniques for Marketing

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PERSUASIVE WRITING LESSON

This all leads us (READ Previous posts) to the step-by-step communication process used to either write or speak in a persuasive manner. Here it is:

1.) Persuasive Writing Tip: Get Attention

Attentionthe first thing you must do in persuasive communication is to gain the reader’s or listener’s attention. Give them a reason to continue to pay attention to you.

2.) Persuasive Writing Tip: Gain Interent

Interest-once you have their attention, you can’t leave them there. Next you must build their interest. How does the product work? What does the product do? Which colors does the product come in? Can I see a photo of the product?

3.) Persuasive Writing Tip: Create Desire

Desire-now you have to make the “sale.” Give them some reasons they can’t live without your product. It saves money. It saves time. It has beauty or status. We call these the “why buys.”

4.) Persuasive Writing Tip: Get the customer/reader to take action

Action-get the customer to take action. Tell them how to order, how much it costs, the choices for payment, how long for delivery. Everything they need to know to take action.

This process is commonly called the AIDA form of persuasive communication (taking the first letter of each step).

WRITING & GRAMMER RULE ARTICLES
Comma, Semicolons, Colons
Quotation Marks
Abbreviations & Titles
Using “I” or “Me” and the Use of “Self” Pronouns
Double Adjectives
Transcribing Numbers
Separate and Joint Ownership
“Who” Versus “Whom”
How to use commas
Persuasive Writing

Persuasive Communication Strategy
Communicating Bad News
Communicating Bad News / TIps and Tricks
Communicating with People with Disabilities
Cross Cultural Communications
Types of Communication and Characteristics
Nonverbal Communications

Communicating with People with Disabilities: Disability Facts

COMMUNICATING WITH PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES

Below is an article that discusses issues related to communicating with people who have disabilities.

Communicating with People with Disabilities

Produced by Adaptive Environment Center under contract to Barrier Free Environments, NIDRR grant#H133D10122

Please note: This material is based in part on Achieving Physical and Communication Accessibility, a publication of the National Center for Access Unlimited, and Community Access Facts, an Adaptive Environments Center publication.

Employees or customers who have disabilities will feel most comfortable at your place of business if you consider these suggestions for effective communication:

Disability Facts: General Considerations

Do not be afraid to make a mistake when meeting and communicating with someone with a disability. Try following the suggestions below. Imagine how you would react if you were in similar situations. Keep in mind that a person who has a disability is a person, and, like you, is entitled to the dignity, consideration respect, and rights you expect for yourself.

Disability Facts: How to Treat People with Disabilities

Treat adults as adults. Address people with disabilities by their first names only when extending the same familiarity to all others present. (Never patronize people by patting them on the head or shoulder.)
Relax. If you don’t know what to do, allow the person who has a disability to put you at ease.

Disability Facts: Offering Assistance and How to Help

If you offer assistance and the person declines, do not insist. If it is accepted, ask how you can best help, and follow directions. Do not take over.
If someone with a disability is accompanied by another individual, address the person with a disability directly rather than speaking through the other person.

Disability Facts: “People First” Terminology

Place the person before the disability. Say “person with a disability,” rather than “disabled person.”

Disability Facts: How to Talk about the Disabled

Avoid referring to people by the disability they have, i.e.., “an epileptic,” “blind people”. A person is not a condition Rather, refer to “a person with epilepsy,” or “people who are blind.”

Disability Facts: Wheelchairs

People are not “bound” or “confined” to wheelchairs. They use them to increase their mobility and enhance their freedom. It is more accurate to say “wheelchair user” or “person who uses a wheelchair.”

Disability Facts: Physical Disabilities

Do not make assumptions about what a person can and cannot do. A person with a physical disability is the best judge of his or her own capabilities.
Do not push a person’s wheelchair or grab the arm of someone walking with difficulty, without first asking if you can be of assistance. Personal space includes a person’s wheelchair, crutches, or other mobility aid.
Never move someone’s crutch, walker, cane, or other mobility aid without permission.
When speaking to a person using a wheelchair for more than a few minutes, try to find a seat for yourself so the two of you are at eye level.

Disability Facts: Visual Disabilities

Identify yourself when you approach a person who is blind. If a new person approaches, introduce him or her.

It is appropriate to touch the person’s arm lightly when you speak so that he or she knows you are speaking to him or her.

Face the person and speak directly to him or her. Use a normal tone of voice.
Don’t leave without saying you are leaving.

If you are offering directions, be as specific as possible, and point out obstacles in the path of travel. Use clock cues (“the door is at 2 o’clock”).

Alert people who are blind or visually impaired to posted information.
Never pet or otherwise distract a guide dog unless the owner has given you permission.

You may offer assistance if it seems needed, but if your offer is declined, do not insist. If your offer is accepted, ask the person how you can best help.

Disability Facts: Hearing Disabilities

Ask the person how he or she prefers to communicate.

Disability Facts: Speaking with an Interpreter

If you are speaking through an interpreter, remember that the interpreter may lag a few words behind – especially if there are names or technical terms to be finger spelled – so pause occasionally to allow him or her time to translate completely and accurately.

Disability Facts: Talks to the Person who is Deaf

Talk directly to the person who is deaf or hard of hearing, not to the interpreter. However, although it may seem awkward to you, the person who is deaf or hard of hearing will look at the interpreter and may not make eye contact with you during the conversation.

Disability Facts: Get the Attention of the Person You Are Addressing

Before you start to speak, make sure you have the attention of the person you are addressing. A wave, a light touch on the shoulder, or other visual or tactile signals are appropriate ways of getting the person’s attention.
Speak in a clear, expressive manner. Do not over-enunciate or exaggerate words.
Unless you are specifically requested to do so, do not raise your voice. Speak in a normal tone; do not shout.

To facilitate speech reading, face into the light and keep your hands and other objects away from your mouth.

Disability Facts: Speech Reading

If the person is speech reading, face the person directly and maintain eye contact. Don’t turn your back or walk around while talking. If you look away, the person might assume the conversation is over.

Disability Facts: Writing a Message

While you are writing a message for someone who is deaf or hard of hearing, don’t talk. The person cannot read your note and your lips at the same time.

If you do not understand something that is said, ask the person to repeat it or to write it down. The goal is communication; do not pretend to understand if you do not.

Disability Facts: Sign Language

If you know any sign language, try using it. It may help you communicate, and it will at least demonstrate your interest in communicating and your willingness to try.

Disability Facts: Speech Disabilities

Talk to people with speech disabilities as you would talk to anyone else.
Be friendly; start up a conversation.

Be patient, it may take the person a while to answer.

Give the person your undivided attention.

Ask the person for help in communicating with him or her. If the person uses a communication device such as a manual or electronic communication board, ask the person how best to use it.

Speak in your regular tone of voice.

Tell the person if you do not understand what he or she is trying to say. Ask the person to repeat the message, spell it, tell you in a different way, or write it down.

To obtain information quickly, ask short questions that require brief answers or a head nod. However, try not to insult the person’s intelligence with over-simplification.

Disability Facts: Cognitive Disabilities Or Mental Disabilities

Treat adults with cognitive disabilities as adults.

Disability Facts: Be Alert to Responses / Visual Forms of Communication

When speaking to someone who has a cognitive disability, try to be alert to their responses so that you can adjust your method of communication if necessary. For example, some people may benefit from simple, direct sentences or from supplementary visual forms of communication, such as gestures, diagrams, or demonstrations.
Use language that is concrete rather than abstract. Be specific, without being too simplistic. Using humor is fine, but do not interpret a lack of response as rudeness. Some people may not grasp the meaning of sarcasm or other subtleties of language.

Disability Facts: Brain Injuries

People with brain injuries may have short-term memory deficits and may repeat themselves or require information to be repeated.

Disability Facts: Auditory Perceptual Problems

People with auditory perceptual problems may need to have directions repeated, and may take notes to help them remember directions or the sequence of tasks. They may benefit from watching a task demonstrated.

Disability Facts: Perceptual Problems

People with perceptual or “sensory overload” problems may become disoriented or confused if there is too much to absorb at once. Provide information gradually and clearly. Reduce background noise if possible.

Repeat information using different wording or a different communication approach if necessary. Allow time for the information to be fully understood.

Don’t pretend to understand if you do not. Ask the person to repeat what was said.
In conversation, people with mental retardation may respond slowly, so give them time. Be patient, flexible, and supportive.

Some people who have a cognitive disability may be easily distracted. Try not to interpret distraction as rudeness.

Do not expect all people to be able to read well. Some people may not read at all.

WRITING & GRAMMER RULE ARTICLES
Comma, Semicolons, Colons
Quotation Marks
Abbreviations & Titles
Using “I” or “Me” and the Use of “Self” Pronouns
Double Adjectives
Transcribing Numbers
Separate and Joint Ownership
“Who” Versus “Whom”
How to use commas
Persuasive Writing

Persuasive Communication Strategy
Communicating Bad News
Communicating Bad News / TIps and Tricks
Communicating with People with Disabilities
Cross Cultural Communications
Types of Communication and Characteristics
Nonverbal Communications

Key Internet Features / Individualization and Interactivity

This is an excerpt from the book Advertising and Promotion by Terence A. Shimp. If you want to have a thorough understanding of advertising and promotion you should get the book.

“Individualization and interactivity are key features of the Internet and of advertising in that medium. Individualization refers to the fact that the Internet user has control over the flow of information. This feature leads, in turn, to the ability to target advertisments and promotions that are relevant to the consumer. Interactivity, which is intertwined with individualization, allows for users to selest the information they percieve as relevant and for brand managers to build relationships with customers via two way communication. We now elaborate on the importance of the Internet’s interactivity feature.

Traditional advertising media vary in the degree to which they are able to generate mental activity from consumers. Nonetheless, all these media engage the consumer in a relatively passive fashion: the consumer listens to or sees information about the advertised brand, but he or she has limited control over the amount or rate of information recieved. What you see (or hear) is what you get. There is action but no interaction. Whereas action involves a flow in one direction (from advertiser to consumer), interaction entails reciprocal behavior. This idea of reciprocity generally defines the nature of interactive media. Interactive advertising enables the user (who no longer is a “reciever” in the traditional, passive model of communications) to control the amount or rate of information that he or she wishes to acquire from a commercial message. The user can choose to devote one second or 15 minutes to a message. He or she is, for all intents and purposes, involved in a conversation with the commercial message at a subvocal level. A request for additional information occurs with the push of a button, the touch of a screen, or the click of a mouse. In all instances, the user and source of commercial information are engaged in a give and take exchange of information – communications intercourse rather than mere transmission and reception. By analogy, a North American football quarterback throws the ball, and the recievers attempt to catch it. Comparitively, in British rugby, players toss the ball back and forth as they advance downfeild – each player both passes and recieves; their relation is analogous to the give and take reciprocity that defines interactive advertising.

The Internet is undeniably a more interactive advertising medium than most. Nonetheless, it is important to note that the Internet as a medium for advertising is not homogenious; rather, there are a variety of different forms of online advertising. These range from e-mail and banner advertisements, which typically offer relativly little opportunity or desire for interaction, to ads encounted when one activly searches a product category or topic (referred to as search engine ads that appear as sponsored links when one conducts, say, a Google search), which generate more interaction.”

I thought the author did a good job talking about it, so I decided I’d just quote him. Get the book.

Below is a List of My Most Read Entries
Search Engine Optimization
Presentation Skills & Public Speaking Presentation Tips & Ideas
Sample Marketing Plan IMC Integrated Marketing Communications
72 Examples of Best Print Advertisements
Business Letter Format/ Formal Letter Writing

Display or Banner Internet Advertisements / Ads – Click Through Rates and More

The most popular format for Internet advertising is display or banner ads. These ads can be a variety of shapes and sizes. Before you create an advertisement be sure to check the specifications that the website or advertising service has for this type of advertisements. Banner advertisements can be static or interactive. Most people reading this have probably seen the banner ads on the social networking website, myspace, that have interactivity. They encourage increased click through rates by having an interactive game in the advertisement.

Generally, click through rates for this advertising format are very low (usually less than .03 percent). This means that most of the banner advertisements that a consumer is exposed to on a website get ignored and don’t get clicked. Even though most banner ads aren’t clicked by a consumer, there is still the benefit of enhancing brand awareness.

There are a variety of ways of getting you ad to get more attention and break through the clutter. Make sure you ads are in higher spots on the web page and that most of the ad shows above the bottom of the browser window. Try viewing the website in 800 x 600 resolution and find spots on the site that are good for advertising and above the bottom of the browser.

Make sure that your ads are well designed and that any photos in the advertisement aren’t pixelated. Nothing scare potential customers away more then having shoddy looking ads. Keep them clean and professional. Don’t try to cram to much into the ad. This is especially important with web advertisements because the image can never be as sharp as it is in print. Think of an advertising message and try to convey that with as little information as possible.

Research that has been done on click through rates reveals that brands that are familiar to a target market have a higher click through rate than other less familiar brands. The research has also shown that CTR (click through rates) for familiar brands decrease as the number of exposures (a.k.a., ad impressions) increases. The opposite is true about less known brands. Understanding this can help marketers plan the exposure rates for each advertisement campaign. This does not imply that well know brands don’t benefit from banner advertising. Even though consumers might not click on the ads, it can create top of mind awareness of the brand.

Make sure if you are picking your own websites to advertise on that you pick websites that aren’t overly cluttered with advertisements. Choose a website that has relatively few advertisements. Even if they are more expensive, they are still better. Some website have some many advertisements that a consumer starts to ignore all the advertisements.

Change the size and shapes of you advertisements. Don’t use the same format for all your advertisements. Research has shown that large ads are considerably more effective than the traditional full banner (468px by 60px) ad size. Try some of these other sizes that have been created as standardized sizes by the Internet Advertising Bureau: Skyscraper (120×600), Wide Skyscraper (160×600), Rectangle (180×150), Medium Rectangle (300×250), Large Rectangle (336×280), Vertical Rectangle (240×400), and the Square Pop-Up (250×250).

Below is a List of My Most Read Entries
Search Engine Optimization
Presentation Skills & Public Speaking Presentation Tips & Ideas
Sample Marketing Plan IMC Integrated Marketing Communications
72 Examples of Best Print Advertisements
Business Letter Format/ Formal Letter Writing