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Sample Marketing Plan | IMC | Integrated Marketing Communications

Below is a sample marketing plan (also known as integrated marketing communications plan). It’s not the best sample marketing plan (or business plan) in the world, but it will give you idea about how a marketing plan (IMC) (or business plan) works and is constructed. If you would like to create your own marketing Plan (IMC), use this Free marketing plan example / template / outline. Read about the importance of marketing plans.

Sample Marketing Plan: Executive Summary

Our company, Innovative Marketing Solutions has come up with a new marketing plan or IMC plan for the Rio mp3 player. In this report, we will further introduce ourselves and how we got started, our client background, the internal and external situational analysis, and why a new IMC plan is needed. Innovative Marketing Solutions is a strong competitor in the electronic marketing industry and is focused on increasing the brand equity and profitability of companies focused on increasing their share of the electronic and technological market. Our mission is to make sure that our clients have the tools and information that they need to become successful in the electronic and technological field. This is a sample of a marketing plan, if you would like to make your own marketing plan (or business plan), please use this free marketing plan template / outline.

To help SigmaTel Inc. decide if they should target the baby boomer generation with an mp3 player that can fit their lifestyle, we have looked at the strengths and weaknesses of the Rio product as well as the opportunities and threats and have included them in this sample marketing plan. We feel that SigmaTel Inc. would profit from making a simple mp3 player that older adults can use and understand. Not many companies are focusing towards the older generation with electronics, and we want SigmaTel Inc. to be one of the first companies to have an mp3 player that everyone can use no matter what a person’s age is.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Introduction to our agency

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Background

Innovative Marketing Solutions (name created for the use of this sample marketing plan. If there is a company with that name we are not representing them) was created in the mid 90’s to assist companies in Northwest Ohio to better understand customers interested in technology and electronics. Innovative Marketing Solutions partnered with a small electronic company called Loblaw Audio Solutions. The owner, Bob Loblaw, had invented a new system for connecting component audio parts with people’s existing stereo systems. Innovative Marketing Solutions tirelessly worked with customers and audio distributors to understand the best approach for Mr. Loblaw to introduce his new product to the market. With help from Innovative Marketing Solutions, Loblaw Audio Solutions has grown and become one of the largest distributors of audio component parts in the Tri-state area. Innovative Marketing Solutions continued to work with electronic manufactures and continued to assist organizations around the nation with their marketing needs. Innovative Marketing Solutions uses their focus on hard work, communication and developed partnerships with clients to play a competitive role in the marketing needs of electronic and technology organizations to this day. Like this sample marketing plan? Make your own marketing plan by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Mission statement

Innovative Marketing Solutions exists to provide clients with the necessary tools and information to be successful in constantly growing market of electronics and technological advances. It is our focus to create strong partnerships with our clients in a never ending attempt to increase awareness, a positive image and consistently growing equity for their products and brand as a whole. We are sure we can successfully demonstrate a measurable value by creating growing and profitable solutions to our client’s marketing needs. (This sample marketing plan includes items that are usually included in a marketing plan. If you would like to create your own marketing plan (or business plan) please use this free marketing plan template / outline. It includes an outline of what to include in your marketing plan and when completed your plan would look similar to this sample marketing plan.)

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Purpose

Innovative Marketing Solutions is a strong competitor in the electronic marketing industry and is focused on increasing the brand equity and profitability of companies focused on increasing their share of the electronic and technological market. We work with companies in the audio/visual and computer electronic market with the goal of obtaining and implementing market research that can help our clients better understand their customers and develop their overall brand image. Like this sample marketing plan (or business plan)? Create your own marketing plan (or business plan) by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Execution

At Innovative Marketing Solutions we use a developed approach that involves goals, research and implementation. By setting achievable goals we are able to create measurable and obtainable marketing plan with a vision that is in sync with our client’s goals and desires. By conducting extensive primary and secondary research that is highly focused on a reachable target market we are able to gain a greater understanding for the markets buying habits and behaviors. Finally, we create a developed plan for implementation that is fine tuned to the needs of our client and will meet and exceed the expectations set at the conception of our sample marketing plan (or business plan).

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Client Background

Our client is SigmaTel Inc. and their brand is the Rio. The Rio brand, which technology assets were bought by SigmaTel from D&M Holding Inc. in 2005, has always been seen as the innovator of the mp3 world. From the time that the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) filed a lawsuit against Rio for its Diamond model in 1998, Rio has been developing new technology before anyone else. After defeating the RIAA who tried to ban mp3 players on the basis that they would encourage and increase music pirates and destroy the business Rio opened the door for a digital audio market ( Rio’s major models include the Rio Carbon, Rio Forge, and Rio Karma. The Rio Carbon is palm-sized and has either a 5 or 6 GB hard drive. The Rio Forge is targeted to the athletic crowd and is a flash-memory player. It has convenient features including an arm strap, stop watch, and lap timer. The Rio Karma has a 20 GB hard drive and plays mp3 files without any gaps between them which allows full albums to be listened to as they were intended.

Make a marketing plan like this sample marketing plan (or business plan) by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

The new product offering, called the Rio Innovo, will be targeting active consumers over the age of fifty. The Rio Innovo will feature a easy-to-use, wide display screen with large control buttons. The Innovo will have a 2GB hard drive so that users can easily store all the music that they enjoy. The product will also utilize an innovative easy-to-use menu. Users can access their favorite music through an in product music database for easy download. The new target market, as mentioned before is consumers over the age of fifty years old. Traditionally, the brand’s target market has always been young, technology savvy consumers. Make a marketing plan (or business plan) with this free marketing plan template / outline. Your completed plan would be similar to this sample marketing plan.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Internal Situation Analysis

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Current Target Market

The target market is baby boomers: more specifically early baby boomers or mature consumers also known as seniors that are age 55 and older. They make up about a quarter of the U.S. population and have larger disposable incomes than other segments. These are active, vital, and busy people which are the main reasons they are the target market for the Rio Innovo music player. By active me mean physically energetic people who enjoy participating in aerobics, swimming and social walking. It has easy to use features including large buttons and screen as well as an overall durableness. These valuable benefits are most important to and sought out by those in the baby boomer demographic. They want something easy to use and that is made well for an active lifestyle. Health conscious consumers are also included in our target market because Rio offers a waterproof and durable product that can accompany them on their workout. Rio’s company image will remain innovative especially in serving to this niche market of baby boomers and active consumers who require a simple, but durable mp3 player. We will be targeting consumers who have not traditionally been the majority of users in the mp3 market. The new targeted consumers have not traditionally been the main buyers of the music players. Make a marketing plan similar to this sample marketing plan (or business plan) by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Positioning

Positioning is how target market defines in relation to competitors. SigmaTel, Inc.’s Rio Innovo mp3 player is unique because of its simplicity. It’s easy to start using it right away which is a huge benefit to busy people who might shy away from complicated music players because they do not have the time to learn a complicated process just to listen to music. Our positioning is based on a combination of attribute positioning and benefits positioning. We will combine positioning in terms of a particular feature that represents a competitive advantage and with respect to brand benefits that appeal to consumer needs. Our attribute positioning is product related in that our design is made with superior materials and with a differentiating appearance such as large buttons and screen which makes it easy to use. The superior materials include the durableness and waterproof features. By using benefit positioning, we will show the customer how the product will suit their needs. The main benefit positioning need we are appealing to is functional needs. We are attempting to fulfill the consumer’s consumption-related problems. Our large easy to read function buttons and waterproof rubber casing fulfill the consumer’s need for convenience. The waterproof ability is only offered with the Rio brand and gives us a competitive advantage. It is an outstanding feature that allows the customer to virtually have their music with them at all times which is great for the active and health conscious consumer. These unique features are what will give the Rio the competitive advantage against other mp3 players. Our target market will respond well to these features and find it easy to join the mp3 craze with the Rio. This is a sample marketing plan. Make a marketing plan (or business plan) that will fit your needs by going to the following link and using the free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): SWOT Analysis

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Strengths

The unique selling points are a larger screen, and large buttons that make it easier to see and it more user friendly. It is simpler to use then an iPod. The Rio Innvo player can be charged by a USB cord or adapter. An excellent feature is our unique, durable, water-proof casing which enables the mp3 player to be used during sporting activities without worrying about damage. The Rio brand has always been seen as an innovator to the mp3 world. The target audience baby boomers that tend to have the majority of disposable income. This is a sample marketing plan (or business plan). Make your marketing plan with this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Weaknesses

A problem is that Apple iPod is the market leader. Currently when considering mp3 players, a lot of people think of iPods and they don’t have a brand loyalty to Rio. Currently there is not enough brand recognition or promotional strengths. This could be a problem until the Rio brand is better known. This is a sample marketing plan. Make a marketing plan (or business plan)for your company with this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Opportunities

Our niche market is the baby boomers who maybe aren’t as technology advanced. We will offer a product that is easy to use and that they can start enjoying right away instead of being turned off by the technology. The growing emphasis on keeping fit, could lead to an opportunity to market are product to start walking and jogging. With our durable casing, Rio Innovo can be taken anywhere. New cars are being sold with built in adaptors for mp3 players that allow music to be taken wherever people go. We could consider partnering with the auto industry in the future baby boomers have more disposable income and our product is the positioned to capture that market. Make a marketing plan (or business plan) for your company by using this free marketing plan template / outline. It will be similar to this sample marketing plan.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Threats

iPods market share is huge. We have to show how Rio Innovo is more beneficial to baby boomers. The threat of new technology is always a consideration. We must continue to be innovative in research so that the Rio Innovo does not become obsolete too quickly. Another threat is future lawsuits from the recording industry. The Rio brand has successfully beaten a lawsuit from the recording industry and must endeavor to stay ahead of other legal problems. The cost of downloading music could be seen as a threat if it suddenly rises. If the costs of downloading music rises people will be less likely to download music and therefore less likely to purchase an mp3 player. Include the threats to your company or product in your marketing plan. You can create a marketing plan (or business plan) similar to this sample by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): External Situational Analysis

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Customers

SigmaTel, Inc.’s Rio brands mp3 players have traditionally been marketed toward the younger, more technologically enabled consumer market. The Rio Innovo will be geared at an untouched target market. The current MP3 player market is comprised of twenty and thirty year old consumers who like music and who like technology. The Rio Innovo will change the demographics that make up the current MP3 market. This is a sample marketing plan (or business plan). Make your own by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Environmental factors

With all the technology around us today people either learn it or try earnestly to ignore it (which tends to not work). The baby boomers are one of the groups caught in a struggle to either become technologically savvy or fall behind. The reason for the Rio Innovo 2G model is solely due to the ability and willingness of the older adult population to learn how and use the new mp3 technology that was originally geared toward the younger population. The Rio 2G model was released due to the socio-cultural developments within our society regarding technology and the push for the latest and most advanced within the industry: “Now given the rapid development of digital music production and storage, as well as broadband wired and wireless access and distribution technologies, music is among the most potent forces in existence…” (Burger 1). America and many other foreign nations’ alike are moving forward to innovate the latest gadget; if we can simplify the technology through its appearance and use, then we can attract the baby boomers. This is a just a sample marketing plan (or business plan). Make your own by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Competitors

Our research for this sample marketing plan has revealed several mp3 players that could potentially be competitors in our market niche. These include the SanDisk Sansa, the Coby MP7095C, and the Samsung YP-K3JQB. Specific attributes of these models will be discussed in further detail below. All of these mp3 players have attributes that could give the proposed version of the Rio Innovo brand competition. They do not, however, target the proposed niche in the mp3 product market. No brands were found that directly targeted the baby boomer market niche.

The first of the possible competing brands is the SanDisk Sansa mp3 player. This brand has 1-4 GB of the same type of flash memory we are suggesting. It also has a subscription download service similar to the download service that our proposed version of the Rio mp3 player. It supports the Microsoft PlaysForSure download subscription service. The brand is targeting the Innovators on the VALS framework. The SanDisk company is attempting to attract consumers with the products unique and innovative design. Prices for this mp3 player vary from $39.99 to $79.99, based on the amount of memory available. This is a sample marketing plan. Create your own marekting plan (or business plan) by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

The second brand that we will look at is the Coby MP-C7095 mp3 player. This brand has 1 GB of flash memory, 2” LCD color display, and FM radio. It can be used to play music and videos and it stores photos and text documents. The navigation buttons are small compared to the buttons we are proposing for our brand and menu navigation structure is to engaging for our target market segment. Like the SanDisk Sansa it does have a download subscription service similar to the one we are proposing for the Rio. The product is regularly priced at $58.00. This is a sample marketing plan. If you make a marketing plan (or business plan), be sure to include products or companies that would compete directly with your product.

The last competing brand we will discuss is the Samsung YP-K3JQB. This brand’s positioning is product related attribute positioning, and is based on the slim product design, the fact that the mp3 player is P2 subscription enabled and that it is touch enabled. The communication message for the product is, “Imagine the power of touch, Imagine slim size big sound.” Its competitive advantage is that the mp3 player is touch enabled and it is very easy to download music with the music players P2 subscription service. The ease of use will be attractive to our targeted market segment, but it may appear to be to technologically advanced for the majority of the baby boomer market niche. The communication message Samsung is using may not be an effective means of reaching the proposed market niche. A more appropriate message would enhance the ease of use rather then innovative product features. The price for this brand is $119.99 and it has 4 GB of flash memory. This is just a sample marketing plan. Make a marketing plan (or business plan) for your company or product by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Need for new IMC plan

SigmaTel, Inc. needs our services to develop a new IMC plan (or this sample marketing plan) for its Rio Innovo mp3 2G model. The new integrated marketing communications plan (marketing plan) will be developed around the five key features of the marketing plan. The product was designed specifically for the older adult population; so step one (start with the customer) has already been completed. Step two is to use any relevant form of contact; this will be discussed later in the midway report. The target market, in this case is the older adults (known as the baby boomers). Our agency will achieve synergy (the third step of the marketing plan (IMC)) through specific mediums that will speak with a voice. We will build relationships with the target market and encourage them to try out the new technology made easy. Lastly, through our new marketing plan we want to affect behavior by making the sale. This is just a sample of a marketing plan. Create a marketing plan (or business plan) for your company by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan: IMC Objective Setting

a.The new marketing plan (IMC) will accomplish many marketing communications objectives; objectives that will provide the foundation for remaining decisions to be made by the not only our company, but also by our client. The goals are measurable and they are based off our current objectives covered in our SWOT analysis. The overall objective is clearly to improve the Rio brand name through increased brand image, in which will increase sales and then win market share. This is a sample of a marketing plan (or business plan). Create your own marketing plan by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

b.The goals of the new marketing plan (IMC) will vary in degree, but the overall objective is clearly to improve the Rio brand name through improved brand image. In order to reach our stated goals, we must first recognize and complete objectives that will help in fundamental and implementation decisions. The goals or this sample marketing plan that have been established in order to increase the Rio brand market share are as follows:

•To move customers in our identified baby-boomer target market from unawareness to awareness (through advertising)
•To build sales of the Rio brand through new product offerings aimed at our target market
•To facilitate the successful introduction of the new product offering
•To gain consumer trust and loyalty
•To offer a product that is unlike any other in the market today, aimed specifically at providing simple, easy-to-use technology for the future.

The goals outlined for the sample marketing plan (IMC) are simple. In order for our sample marketing plan to be effective, we must move the general population from unawareness to awareness, implement new product offerings, facilitate those new offerings through successful introductions, build consumer relationships, and lead the market in user-friendly technology.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Marcom message

To position the new Rio Innovo we are going to take a very different marketing approach in order to differentiate our product from existing mp3 players. We will be taking a reverse approach at marketing the new Rio Innovo by positioning the product around its ease of use and simplicity rather than innovation and advanced technology. Many of the new mp3 players including our direct competitors such as, the Coby MP-c7095 and the SanDisk Sansa, focus on attracting customers with advanced technology and fashionable usability. Although the younger generation does like the most up to date technology and trendy accessories we realize that the baby boomer generation cares about ease of use and compatibility with their lifestyle. Since the younger generation is already swept up by the iPod we will maintain our approach at targeting the older generation and our positioning will reflect the needs and wants of this market segment. This is just a sample of a marketing plan (or business plan). Write your own with this free marketing plan template / outline.

Proper positioning is all about establishing an image that consumers can relate to. The image should create a distinguishable differentiation between your brand and competitors while leaving an impression on the consumer they will not soon forget. The baby boomer generation is not overly impressed with flashy advertising and loud, overbearing messages that is why our theme will be simple yet sophisticated. The theme of our advertising will be focused on displaying the simple functionality of our product such as easy to access buttons, a highly visible display and simple to use software with step by step instructions. By showing our mp3 player being used by members of our market segment and enjoying the ease of use it will be simple to relate to our target customers since so much advertisement for such products is directed away from this particular segment of the population. This will give us an opportunity for differentiation by explaining how the Rio Innovo “is unlike any other mp3 player in the industry with its overall simplicity and easy to use functionality.” After developing an image of easy functional usage we can direct the consumer’s attention to how the Rio Innovo could be used in their life. This is where symbolic imagery will play a major role since we know the baby boomer generation still likes to be active and doesn’t want to be seen as behind conventional society this is how we will portray them. By showing consumers using the products while being active such as running or hiking we will open up the possibilities of use to our consumers and how our product can positively impact their active lifestyle. Also by showing consumers using the product at work or in other professional settings we will display some unique uses of the Rio Innovo our market segment could possibly relate to.

This is just a sample marketing plan (or business plan). Make the real thing for your company by using this as a guideline and by using this free marketing plan template / outline.

Our overall sample marketing plan (or business plan) will be focused on offering the consumer a “more for less” positioning strategy. Although our product does not offer the customer as much as our competitors in the way of advancing technology we do offer the customer more in the way of usability, unique design and compatibility with their lifestyle. We also offer the customer more in overall satisfaction because by easily understanding the product and having to spend less time figuring out how to use it the customer can spend more time enjoying the mp3 player in their everyday life. As far as getting “more for less” the consumer can expect to spend far less in effort, time and cost. By doing away with a lot of unnecessary technology that will only serve to confuse and cause difficulties for the user we will be able to offer the Rio Innovo at a reduced price compared to our competitors units. Since the software will allow our target segment, who may not be as capable as younger consumers at mp3 and computer usage, to easily transfer music from their computer to the player without difficult applications and services our product with save the consumer a great deal of time. Also by making the actual unit easy to use with small buttons and a highly visible screen we will save the consumer from any effort and strain associated with using trendy, sleek designed mp3 players. That is why our marketing communication plan will reflect our products image of offering “more for less” which will be reflected in our brands tagline “All the mp3 playback capabilities you could need without any unnecessary extras to slow you down!” THis is a sample marketing plan (or business plan). Make the real thing with this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Creative Style

Our creative style of this sample marketing plan (or business plan) wants to meet all the criteria needed for creative advertising to be effective. The creative style should come from a sound marketing strategy, take the consumer’s view, find a unique way to break through the clutter, not promise what it cannot deliver and prevent the creative idea from overwhelming the overall strategy. The creative style should be both original and appropriate meaning that the ideas should be new and the advertisement should have a solution to the customer’s problem. The focus of our advertising is to show the consumer that we have a product which will offer them the benefits of new-age mp3 players without the difficulty of use. We will communicate with the consumer by relating to them through visuals based around their demographics and activity based displays. This is why we will use a combination of creative styles including unique selling proposition, brand image, and resonance creative marketing techniques. We will use the unique selling proposition style to develop awareness of our easy to use software and simple design which takes advantage of enlarged buttons and a bigger display screen. We are attempting to create a brand image because we want our older target market segment to see our brand as fitting of their lifestyle. By creating an image of simplicity and overall ease of use we can attract an older segment to our brand that is not as tech-savvy as the traditional mp3 player customer. Finally by displaying an older consumer using our mp3 player and being active we can relate to their desired lifestyle and successfully use the resonance creative style approach. By using synergy to combine these three separate creative advertising styles we can successfully reach our target market segment in a way that will excite them and create desire to purchase our mp3 player. This is a sample of a marketing plan (or business plan). Create your own marketing plan with this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan (IMC): Promotional Tools

Since we are targeting the active baby boomer generation, we have decided that we are going to have demonstrations showing how to set up and operate the Rio Innovo. We will send representatives from our company to local YMCA’s, Lifestyles for Women, Curves, Bally’s and other workout facilities. As a company we feel that if we have some of our target market try our product while they are working out and then ask them what they think of the Rio Innovo, we will be able to get personal testimony from our target market. Another way we will promote the new Rio Innovo is by having an in-store display with a working model. With the working model there will be a brochure for the customer to take with them and a board displaying all the information about the Rio Innovo. We could either train the employees at the stores that we are thinking of selling the Rio Innovo or once again we could send out a representative out to show how to use the Rio Innovo. Some stores that we have in mind to sell the new Rio Innovo are Circuit City, Best Buy, Radio Shack, Target and Wal-Mart. This is a sample of a marketing plan (or business plan). Create a marketing that will serve your company with this free marketing plan template / outline.

Sample Marketing Plan: Media Selection

Our target market segment will be people above 50 and who have an interest/use technology on a regular basis. When the Rio Innovo is completed and we are ready to enter it into our target market, the main concern will be to get the innovators and early adopters to purchase and use the product. This will be done by specific message targeting that will get the attention of this segment of the 50 and over market. The internet will be the main form of advertising, because Internet users who are 50 and over are innovators in their target market and are already users of technology. This means that they are more likely to adopt a new technology. Direct mail will be the second form of advertising. It will be used to both introduce consumers to the product, and to re-enforce the advertising message that they may have received from the Internet usage.

The use of the Internet in this sample marketing plan

Internet advertising will be purchased through the Google Adwords program and through the Senior Citizen website, AARP. Adwords is a targeting advertising program that Google provides to businesses. Google will display ads on various participating websites according to the content that corresponds to the advertisers preferences. For example if a website’s content is related to retirement, then the Google Adwords service will display advertisements associated with retirement. Adwords provides a way to display advertisements on thousands of websites in targeted areas or all around the world. For the Rio Innovo, United States will be selected as the target country until the product has become well established in the market niche. 1 million dollars will be budgeted for Adwords advertising in the year following the product introduction. This budget would display millions of ad impressions to our target market, so that chances that a consumer would see the advertisement more then once would be substantial.

AARP is a website that does not use the Adwords service, but sells advertising space independently. The AARP website users are the ideal target audience. The visitors are generally hip, happy, healthy, and surprisingly tech savvy. The website says that its visitors are, “redefining our expectations on age, vitality, and life.” Below is part of a report Nielsen/Net Rating did on the website’s online visitors:

• 42.9% Male
• 57.1 Female
• 69.1 Married
• Mean Age: 54.9
• Mean HHI: $70,038
• 66.5% Employed
• 92% have been online for 3+ years
• 61% go online every day
• 78% go online 3+ times a week
• 77% have broadband access

The company has over 2 million unique visitors and over 16 million average page views each month. The average time spent on the website is 6 minutes, and 5.4 pages are viewed during each visit.

AARP charges rates based on the number of ad impressions each ad receives (in increments of a thousand views). Below a table that contains the different advertising options with the price per thousand impressions:

Banner Placements<>
RON Dimensions CPM
Square Button 125 × 125 $27
Leaderboard 728 × 90 $27
Medium Rectangle 300 × 250 $27
Wide Skyscraper 160 × 600 $27
Skyscraper 120 × 600 $27
Banner Targeting
Topic Targeting Any Size $35
Sub Topic Targeting Any Size $55
Geo Targeting – RON Any Size $40
Geo Targeting – Topic Any Size $55
Geo Targeting – Sub Topic Any Size $65

During the first three months of the advertising campaign, there will be $350,000 budgeted for advertising space on the AARP website. This will result in approximately 13 million ad impressions. The type of ads will be varied and in different spots through out the website.

Sample Marketing Plan: Direct mail

One of the media selections (included in this sample marketing plan) used in the marketing communications program will be direct mail. This direct mail will be sent to individuals who are age 50 and up, and who have purchased a technology or music product within the last six months. The mailing lists will be sent to addresses that are obtained through InfoUSA targeted mailing list service. The mail pieces will be 4×6 postcards and will depict an individual from the target market niche using the product in a fun environment. $650,000 is budgeted for this form of advertising.

Sample Marketing Plan: Evaluation and Measurement of Success

We will measure our sample marketing plan’s success based on sales records and awareness. Return On Marketing Investment (ROMI) will be based on increase in sales volumes as well as increase in brand awareness and improved attitudes toward the brand. As we market our product the aim is to ultimately increase sales. Looking at the sales records we will know that our marketing plan is working if sales increase within three months after implementing it. Because marcom efforts in the current accounting period may not improve sales volume measurably until a later period we will allow three months to start seeing results. After the initial three months if we see no increase in sales we will reevaluate to see if brand awareness is increasing enough with our current marcom efforts to determine if we should continue with our these efforts.

Brand awareness is very important to us because there are so many other mp3 players available we want people to think of ours first in hopes that they will end up buying ours. Top of Mind awareness is our ultimate goal although we realize this will take time. Along with brand awareness, improved attitudes toward the Rio mp3 and increased purchasing intentions are also important.

Improved attitudes and purchase intentions must predictably turn into an increase in sales to be considered affective. An increase in brand awareness must translate in proportion to sales increases to be successful. If we decide that brand awareness is still increasing at a steady rate, but not affecting sales yet we will allow another two months to see if the increased in sales is just delayed. If after five months there is no increase in sales our sample marketing plan will have failed and we will rethink our marcom efforts.

Hope you enjoyed this sample marketing plan (or business plan). This sample marketing plan (or business plan) was added to this website to help you have a better idea about what a marketing plan should look like. It is just a sample of a marketing plan (or business plan), so most of the information is fictional. If you want more then a sample marketing plan (or business plan) and you would like to have a real marketing plan (or business plan) for your company, then you should consider using this free marketing plan template / outline and a guideline.

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India Facts: History of India

India is officially named the Republic of India and is a country located in South Asia. The people of India have had a continuous civilization culture since 3300 BC., when the inhabitants of the Indus River valley developed an urban culture based on commerce and sustained by agricultural trade. India quickly became a center of important trade routes, cultural development, and vast empires. Despite invasions over the past 5000 years, Indian culture and society has been very resilient. In the earliest years of the country, the southern kingdoms remained more stable than the north and carried out trade involving spices and precious gems with Arabia, China, and Europe. From the 16th century onwards, several European countries including Portugal, Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom, started arriving as traders, later taking advantage of the relationships between kingdoms.

India Facts: Independence and Mahatma Gandhi

In the early twentieth century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, and various revolutionary groups. The movement was mainly led by Mahatma Gandhi. India emerged as a modern nation-state on August 15, 1947 from British rule, when they went through an intense movement of social reforms and forged into a single nation. On January 26, 1950, they ratified a new Constitution and became a republic.

India Facts: Emerging World Superpower

Since their independence, India has seen violence and insurgencies in various parts of the country, but has maintained its unity and democracy. They also are a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations (at the time as part of British India). Significant economic reforms beginning in 1991, have transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. India is now considered to be an emerging world superpower.

India Facts: Government of India

India Facts: Largest Democracy in the World

India is referred to as the largest democracy in the world, by virtue of the fact that it has the largest electing population among democratic countries. The country has a federal form of government and a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system. It has three branches of government, similar to that of the United States. The executive arm, which contains a Chief of State (President), Head of State (Prime Minister), and Council of Ministers or cabinet (appointed by the president), headed by the Prime Minister. The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court which has one chief justice and 25 associate justices who are appointed by the president. The Supreme Court is headed by the Chief Justice. The legislature of India is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house (Council of States), and the lower house (House of People).

India Facts: Politics of India

For most of its independent history, India has been ruled by the Indian National Congress; a political party. India practices Hindi law and is home to the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Indian National Congress, and Bharatiya Janata Parties. Since their independence, India has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. They took the lead during the 1950s in advocating the independence of all European colonies in Africa and Asia.

India Facts: The Cold War and India

During the Cold War, India tried to maintain its neutrality among nations. After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, India’s relationship with the Soviet Union warmed at the expense of ties with the United States and continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. They have consistently refused to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to maintain sovereignty over its nuclear program despite criticism and military sanctions.

India Facts: Close Relationships with South America, Asia, and Africa

In the economic sphere, India has close relationships with developing nations of South America, Asia, and Africa. In more recent years, India has played an influential role in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). They have also been a long time supporter of the United Nations, with over 55,000 military and police personnel having served in 35 UN peace keeping operations over four continents. Since the 1990s, India has been considered an emerging power on the global stage, meaning it has increased influence on international affairs.

India Facts: India Economy

The economy of India is fourth largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity or PPP, with a GDP of $3.6 trillion. When measured in exchange rates in relation to the US dollar, it is the twelfth largest economy in the world, with a GDP of over $785 billion, as calculated by the World Bank. India is the second fastest growing major economy in the world with a GDP growth rate of over 9%, and annual industrial production change of over 12%, as of the first quarter in 2006. Wealth distribution in India is fairly uneven; the top 10% of income groups earn an estimated 33% of all income. It is calculated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that by 2007, the Indian economy will be ranked third measured by PPP. Population below the poverty line is ranked at below 25% and as of 2005 the public debt exceeded 53%.

India Facts: Government Control of Economy

For most of its independent history they have followed a quasi-socialist approach, with strict government control over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. Starting from 1991, India has gradually opened its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment. Privatization of public-owned industries and some sectors to private and foreign players have continued to be subject to political debate.

India Facts: Labor Force, Agriculture, Industries, and Oil. Import Commodities

India has a labor force of over 496 million of which 60% is employed in agriculture or agriculture-related industries which contributes to only about 22% of GDP, 17% in mainstream industry, and 23% in service industry. Their agricultural produce includes rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. Major industries include textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, and machinery. Electricity production is over 556 billion kWh (kilowatt-hour) and its electricity exports are 187 million kWh as of 2003. India’s oil production is 785,000 bbl/day (barrels per day) and their oil consumption exceeds 2.3 million bbl/day. The largest import commodities are crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, and chemicals.

India Facts: Growth in Business Process Outsourcing

India’s large English speaking middle-class has contributed to the country’s growth in Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). It is becoming a major base for US tech companies for future targeted research and development, including Google, IBM, and Microsoft. All this has helped the service sector to increase its share of the economy to approximately 50%.

India Facts: Major Trading Partners

The most important trading partners India deals with are the United States, China, UK, Singapore, Hong Kong, Switzerland, Belgium, and the United Arab Emirates. They are a major exporter of financial and research and technology services as well.

India Facts: India Population, India People, Demographics

India Facts: Seventh-Largest, Second Most Populous, Language & Religion

India is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second most populous country, and has the largest democracy in the world. India borders Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. They are the second-most populous country in the world with an estimated 1.1 billion people as of 2006. Language and religion are determinants of social and political organizations within its diverse population. 81% of inhabitants are Hindu. India is also home to the second largest population of Muslims in the world with 12%, after Indonesia. Other religious groups include Christians, Buddhists, and Jews. The national average literacy rate is 64% (males 75% and females 54%). The state of Kerala leads the country with a literacy rate of approximately 94%.

India Facts: Sex Ratio, Median Age, Birth Rate & Growth Rate

Unlike the US, UK, and Australian Censuses; the national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within themselves. India’s largest metropolitan areas are Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Delhi, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), Chennai (formerly Madras), Bangalore, and Hyderabad. The national sex ratio is 933 females per 1,000 males and the median age is 24 years. Birth rate is currently averaged at 22 births per 1,000. The total fertility rate (TFR) is above the world average; however the growth rate is decreasing in Southern India.

India Facts: Two Major Languages, Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Hindi

India is home to two major languages, Indo-Aryan; spoken by 74% of the population and Dravidian; spoken by 24% of the population. The Indian constitution recognizes a total of 23 official languages. Hindi and English are used by the Union Government of India for official purposes. The number of dialects in India is well over 1,600.

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Writing / Grammer | Commas, semicolon, Colon, Possessives, Adjectives, Nouns, Pronouns, Abbreviations, Titles

Writing / Grammer Business Communications and Grammer

Writing is an important part of doing business. Most people, me included, could deffinetly use some help when it comes to proper grammer usage, letter writing, and more. Since I’m not very good in the area myself, I’m including notes from a class I took in business communications. Clear writing and grammer is part of advertising and marketing.

Writing / Grammer When to Use a Comma

One of the toughest set of writing rules deals with when to use commas. Here is a website that can help take the “mystery” out of commas. It addresses many of the myths about commas that we were told in grade school. In fact, a really long sentence can be perfectly okay without commas; and “When you take a breath—you need a comma” is definitely not true.

Writing / Grammer Commas & Semicolons Used With Independent Clauses

· Use a comma before a conjunction that joins two independent clauses.

Our listings include several charming colonial-style houses, but none of them meet your space requirements.

Are you really interested in leasing warehouse space, or would you prefer to purchase your own facilities?

· Use a semicolon between two independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction.

Semicolon Examples:
Homes in Glen Oaks are very convenient to public transportation; express buses to the business district depart every 15 minutes.

We do not think the building is structurally sound; the foundation is in need of major repairs in several places.

· Use a semicolon before the conjunction that joins two independent clauses if either of the clauses contains commas or other internal punctuation.

Semicolon Examples:
Come in on Monday, June 22; or if you prefer, call me to arrange another date.

Tom said, “I don’t want to go”; but I think he’s not telling the truth.

· Use semicolons to separate items in a series if they contain internal punctuation (such as commas).

Semicolon Examples:

Tenants are urged to take advantage of the pool, which opens May 31; the four tennis courts, which are lighted until 10 p.m.; and the exercise rooms, which include men’s and women’s saunas.

Please bring the following on the trip: a flashlight; a thermos, presently on sale at Target; and a map.

Writing / Grammer Colons

· Primarily, colons are used after the introduction of a series of items.

Colon Example:

All managers should bring the following to the meeting: a data sheet, a budget plan, and a calculator.


· When showing separate ownership, use the possessive at the end of each noun.

Seperate Ownership Examples:

Sara’s and Tom’s reports were in competition with each other.

Clara’s and Susan’s offices are adjacent to each other.

Writing / Grammer JOINT OWNERSHIP

· When showing joint ownership, only use the possessive at the end of the last noun.

Joint Ownership Examples:

Bob, Tom, and Sue’s document was submitted on time.

Tim and Alisha’s son was elected president.


· For words ending in a letter other than “s” form the possessive by adding (’s).

Form Possessives Examples:

My brother’s car is being repaired.

The men’s bowling league begins on February 1.

· For plural words ending in an “s” form the possessive by adding an apostrophe (’).


The jurors’ opinions will determine the outcome.

The committees’ schedules will be posted.

· For singular words ending in an “s” form the possessive by adding (’s).


One witness’s comment was especially helpful.

My boss’s report will be ready tomorrow.


· Spell out numbers from one through ten, but use figures for numbers 11 on.

Transcribing Numbers Examples:

We ordered eight cartons of forms.

We ordered 25 cartons of forms.

Writing / Grammer Transcribing Numbers EXCEPTIONS:

· Always use figures for percentages (5 percent)

· Always use figures for measurements (2 feet, 6 pounds)

· Always use figures when using a.m. and p.m. (1 p.m., 8 a.m.)

· Always use words for numbers that begin a sentence (Thirty-five students attended the class.)

· Use the same style to express numbers that apply to the same category within a sentence. If at least one of the numbers should be a figure, use figures for all of the numbers.


Prepare a requisition for 4 printers, 15 computers, and 6 modems.

Prepare a requisition for four printers, seven computers, and six modems.

Prepare a requisition for 4 printers, 15 computers, and 6 modems, four days ago.


· To determine if two adjectives appearing together in a sentence need a comma to separate them, ask the following question:

“Can the adjectives be switched and the sentence still sound correct?”

If the answer is yes—a comma is needed to separate them.

If the answer is no—a comma is not needed to separate them.


Bob drives a red sports car.

It was an interesting, informative speech.

HINT: Another way to check to see if a comma is necessary is to insert the word “and” in between the two adjectives. If the sentence still sounds correct, a comma is needed to separate the two adjectives.

Writing / Grammer USING “I” OR “ME”

· When determining whether to use “I” or “me,” delete the words coupled with the “I” or “me” and decide which of the pronouns sounds the best. This is the correct one to use.


They have asked Sue and me to give the presentation.

Dave and I will attend the meeting.

Writing / Grammer USE OF “SELF” PRONOUNS

· Only use “self” pronouns (myself, yourself, herself) when the noun/pronoun to which it refers has been mentioned earlier in the sentence.


I have tried to pace myself in completing the project.

Sue has resigned herself to the fact that she will not be selected.

Writing / Grammer ABBREVIATIONS

Grammer and writing is part of effective advertising and marketing. Something I need to work on too.

· An abbreviation for one word requires a period.


Doctor = Dr.

Mister = Mr.

· An abbreviation for more than one word does not require periods.


Federal Bureau of Investigation = FBI

National Football League = NFL

Writing / Grammer EXCEPTION:

Always use periods in the abbreviations U.S. and U.S.A.

Writing / Grammer TITLES

· Italicize (underline) titles of complete works such as books, magazines, newspapers, movies, television shows, albums, plays, etc.

I read about it in Newsweek.

I loved the movie Gone With the Wind.

· Use quotation marks around titles of parts of works such as articles from newspapers or magazines, chapters from books, songs, episodes from television shows, etc.


“Working Mothers” was an interesting article in People magazine.

Read Chapter 7, “How to Write a Resume.”


· Periods and commas always fall inside of the closing quotation mark.


Tim said, “I will call her tomorrow.”

“I will call her tomorrow,” said Tim.

· Semicolons and colons always fall outside of the closing quotation mark.

· Place question marks and exclamation points inside of the closing quotation mark if they are part of the quote.


James said, “Will you be attending the meeting?”

Who said, “ Give me liberty or give me death”?

Sheila exclaimed, “I can’t believe I won!”

Writing / Grammer | “WHO” VERSUS “WHOM”

· Use “who” as the subject of the sentence, and use “whom” as the object of the sentence.


Mabel was not sure whom to trust.

Bob asked Dave who had given him the document.

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How Are RFID Tags Used and How Do They Work?

RFID Tags Technology: What Are RFID’s?

RFID stands for radio frequency identification. Radio frequency identification is a technology that uses devices called RFID transponders as an identification method. These transponders are used to store or send data that can be retrieved or sent by RFID tag or chip readers from a distance of a few feet to a few hundred feet. These RFID tags can be attached to or imbedded into a person, animal, product, and practically anything else, for the purpose of unique identification. The data that the RFID (Radio Freqency Identification Devices) tags reading device collects is sent to a database to be analyzed by people or software for various purposes.

Circuit Board Sends and Recieves Radio Wave Frequency Signals

Most RFID tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices) have an integrated circuit board that stores and processes information, modulates and demodulates radio wave frequency signals, and completes other specific functions. The circuit board is attached to an antenna that transmits and receives radio wave frequency (RF) signals. There is also a developing technology that does not require the use of integrated circuit chips. This allows the tags to be printed directly onto items and reduces the cost of creating RFID tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices).

History of RFIDs(Radio Frequency Identification Devices}

The first invention that was similar to a RFID tag or chip was invented in 1946 by Leon Theremin, which the Soviet Union used as an espionage tool. This device was more of a passive covert listening device, not a RFID tag or chip, but it is accredited to being the technology that was used to develop the current RFID tags or chips. In 1969 Mario Cardullo invented the first true ancestor of the current RFID tags or chips. This device was similar to modern passive RFID tags, as it had memory and a passive radio transponder. A few years later in 1973 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory created the technology for the first reflected power RFID tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices).

Types of RFIDs Used on Products

There are three general types of RFID tags or chips: active RFID tags, passive RFID tags, and semi-passive RFID tags. Active RFID tags require a power source, such as a small lithium battery. Passive RFID tags do not have an internal power supply. Semi-passive RFID tags also have a battery, but the battery only gives enough power to run the microchip but not to broadcast the signal.

Active RFID Tags or chips

Active RFID tags tend to be more reliable then the other two types of RFID tags. Because active RFID tags have an “onboard” power source, they are able to transmit higher radio wave levels; this allows them to be read from greater distances and to be more effective in environments that are not favorable to RF signals. Such environments include, but are not limited to the following: water, humans, animals, metal containers and vehicles. Active RFID tags of a range of up to 1,500 feet and have a battery life of up to 10 years and have more memory capacity then passive RFID tags or semi-passive RFID tags. The two main drawbacks of this type of RFID tag or chip are that they are larger and cost substantially more to manufacture. An example of an organization that uses this type of RFID tag is the United States Department of Defense. The USDD has used this type of tag in supply chain management and cargo transportation for over 15 years.

Passive RFID Tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices)

Passive RFID tags do not have an internal power supply; rather an electrical current is induced in the antenna by an incoming radio frequency. This provides enough power for the integrated circuit in the RFID to transmit a response. The antenna is designed to collect power from the incoming signal and to transmit what is known as a backscatter signal. Passive RFID tags have relatively short read distances compared to active RFID tags and semi-passive RFID tags. The normal distance is from about 4 inches to a few feet. The distance depends on the antenna size and the chosen radio frequency. Because there is no power supply a passive RFID can be quite small compared to the other types of tags. This type of tag is the most commonly used tag in logistics.

Passive RFID Tags Will Replace Bar Codes

As the cost of this type of RFID tag or chip continues to go down, it is expected to become as common as bar codes. In fact, many believe they will eventually replace bar codes on products. Technology is being developed that will eventually allow for RFID tags to be roll-printed, like a magazine. This would make the cost of each individual RFID tag almost nothing, making the need for barcode obsolete.

Semi-Passive RFID Tags

As mentioned earlier, semi-passive RFID (Radio Freqency Identification Devices) tags have their own power source, but this power source only powers the microchip and not the radio frequency signal. The antenna is powered in the same that the passive RFID tag receives power. The semi-passive RFID tags have greater sensitivity than passive tags and can therefore be read from much greater distances. Because the battery doesn’t power as much as the active tag battery does, it has a longer life. It can also perform functions that a passive RFID tag cannot perform.

How RFIDs Are Used on Products and in Logistics

The RFID system captures and manages detailed information about items through out the entire supply chain. The system greatly improves supply chain management by providing timely information. This includes information about when items are in storage, when they are in transit, and when they are delivered. The RFID tags or chips allow manufacturers to track the complete production history of each product. This in turn, allows them to have a better understanding of product defects and successes and to have timely information about which products should or should not be produced. Customers of the manufacturers benefit from RFID systems in a number of ways including having a dramatic reduction in out-of-stock items and by only having items that sell well produced and delivered.

RFID How it Works example

The best way to describe how the system works is to describe how an individual company implements the system. An example of a company that uses an RFID system is Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart has RFID readers installed on the store receiving docks that record the arrival of goods that have been shipped with RFID tags. Other RIFD readers are installed in the doorways that lead out of the storage room into the sales area. Wal-Mart then uses sales data from the point of purchase systems and from the RFID data about the number of items brought onto the sales floor to determine which items need to be restocked. This automatically creates a list of items that need to be either picked up from the storage area or shipped from the manufacturers.

Wal-Mart shares the data it collects with its suppliers through an extranet system it has created called the Retail Link. The data is used to improve inventory management because the suppliers and manufacturers know exactly where their products are located and how many need to restocked or produced.

The RFID system has helped Wal-Mart reduce the out-of-stock merchandise in its stores by over 30 percent in the first two years of the systems implementation. The system still has room for improvement, however. Because RFID tags are still relatively expensive, Wal-Mart doesn’t require each item to be tagged rather it uses RFID tags on cases of individual items. The implementation of the RFID tags cost suppliers 25 to 75 cent per case or pallet. This is not substantial when it comes to per pallet cost, but it would be costly if each item where to be RFID tagged. Once the RFID tags become cheap enough Wal-Mart will be able to tag each item and the information will be timelier and more precise. Once the technology is developed for the printable passive RFID tags, it wont be hard for Wal-Mart supplier to afford printing RFID tags on each individual product.

As can be seen by the success of the Wal-Mart example and many other examples not mentioned, RFID tags (Radio Freqency Identification Devices) have great potential in not only logistics but many other areas as well. Only the future can tell how great this potential will be, but one can be sure that they will play a great role in the future and that they will part of everyone’s life in someway. Cargo management will become more efficient and companies will save money, which in turn will save everyone money.

Top 11 Presentation/Public Speaking Tips

All of us have suffered through presentations where the presenter has provided too much information on a slide, produced a slide with font sizes that are so small it renders it unreadable, created a slide show that contained far too many slides, etc. Let’s take a look at some information you should understand before composing presentations.

#1 Topic & Purpose

One of the biggest mistakes that a presenter makes is not to clearly identify (and stick to!) the topic of the presentation. It is very effective to have a “cover” slide—much like the cover page of a paper—that might state things like who you are, who you represent, and the main topic(s) of your presentation. PowerPoint offers a way that you can link the topics on the cover slide to future slides—pulling all of the information together.

#2 Stay on Track

Before you begin preparing a slide show, ask yourself the question, “What is the topic of this presentation?” You should re-ask this question periodically throughout the presentation preparation to assure that you are staying on track.

# 3 Purpose

Closely related to identifying and keeping with the topic is determining the purpose of the presentation. Presentations can have the same topic—but much different purposes. Below are some examples of purposes:

# 4 Credibility

To inform—these presentations provide ideas, alternatives, data, or opinions. When giving this type of presentation, you act as a “teacher.” It must be accurate, reliable, and credible. It is important to cite sources and double-check your data.
To persuade—these presentations can change or reaffirm existing attitudes, try to gain audience commitment, or motivate change. Credibility is very important in this type of presentation. Thus, you must conduct conscientious research to provide truthful information. There’s nothing less persuasive than someone suspecting you’re fabricating data just to get them to agree.

# 5 Stimulating Emotions and Feelings

To motivate—these presentations heavily rely on stimulating emotions/feelings. The best way to motivate someone to act is to appeal to his/her needs. Appealing to emotional intensity is critical to putting together a successful motivational presentation.

# 6 Presentations that Acknowledge & Honor

To celebrate—sometimes presentations are made to acknowledge or honor someone, to celebrate an event, etc. When preparing this type of presentation, you should always consider the common ties that bind the participants together.

# 7 Know Your Audience

Continued from previous entry: Another important consideration when preparing a presentation is to analyze your audience. This includes such things as the size of the audience, education level, age, occupational status, attitudes, perspective, etc.

# 8 Make Your Presentation Fit Understanding of Audience

It is important that your audience understands your presentation—that it is clear and concise. Don’t use words/terms that the audience may not be familiar with and don’t use technical expressions or jargon that the audience cannot relate to.

# 9 Know as Much About Your Audience As Possible

Part of putting together a presentation is to find out as much about your audience as possible. An excellently organized presentation can be poorly received if it does not meet the needs and expectations of the audience.

# 10 Choosing Audiovisuals

There are many other audiovisual aids from which to choose when producing a presentation. Below is a brief description of some of these choices.


Advantages-Inexpensive and easily available
Disadvantages-Technology can fail (e.g. burned out bulb) and is now considered “old fashioned”

Chalkboards and Flip Charts

Advantages-Do not require electricity, chalkboards are “reusable”
Disadvantages-Hard to “hide” from audience (can’t put a piece of paper over them like an overhead) so can draw attention away from presenter

Audio and Audiovisual Equipment

Advantages-Can bring vivid examples to an audience
Disadvantages-Presents chance of technical failure, requires great effort to ensure that the audience can see and/or hear them


Advantages-Inexpensive, don’t depend on technology for their use
Disadvantages-Audience might focus on them and not the presenter

Computer-Generated Presentations

Advantages-Allow for “special effects” such as computer-played video, Internet connection, etc.
Disadvantages-Potential equipment failure and can become “overdone” and gimmicky

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Tips for Public Speaking

# 11 Ethics

Ethics has become a progressively more important issue in today’s workplace. An employee can save himself/herself a lot of headaches (and potential legal problems) if he/she follows the guidelines below:

Ethical Guidelines

Maintain Candor-Candor refers to truthfulness, honesty, and frankness in communication with other people. Although there may be times when openness is not preferred (such as in negotiations), it is usually wise and ethical to be as open as possible.

Keep Messages Accurate

Always try to be as accurate as possible when communicating with others. Ethical communicators don’t “embellish” stories to make them more “juicy.”


Avoid Deception-Intentional distortion is not only unethical; it can lead to uncomfortable situations. Someone may “call” you on the distortion—and the worse case scenario—it may be the end of your presentation and perhaps the end of the relationship with the customer.


Maintain Consistent Behavior-One noticeable example of unethical behavior is saying one thing and doing another. This will quickly jeopardize your image. Consistency between communication and action is imperative to being considered ethical in the marketplace.


Keep Confidences-When someone tells you something and expects you not to tell anyone else, trust has been placed in you. If you tell someone else and make her/him promise not to tell others, chances are the information will get back to the original source—undermining that person’s confidence in you.

Holding Back Information

Ensure Timeliness of Communication-Holding back information from someone can also be considered unethical. This is especially true when it is done intentionally. It’s not always what you say, but what you don’t say.

Confront Unethical Behavior

To maintain a consistent ethical viewpoint, you must confront unethical behavior when you observe it. Public acknowledgement of the behavior isn’t always necessary, but confronting someone privately sends the message that you are not tolerant of such activity.

Be Sensitive to Those Troubled by Unethical Behavior

Cultivate Empathic Listening-By lending a sensitive ear to those who are troubled by unethical behavior, you can better understand and help to solve the problems associated with these acts.